The factor by which the absorbed dose (rad or gray) must be multiplied to obtain a quantity that expresses, on a common scale for all ionizing radiation, the biological damage (rem or sievert) to the exposed tissue. Tungsten alloy radiation shielding is used because some types of radiation, such as alpha particles, are more biologically damaging to live tissue than other types of radiation when the absorbed dose from both is equal. The term, quality factor, has now been replaced by "radiation weighting factor" in the latest system of recommendations for radiation protection.
The original unit developed for expressing absorbed dose, which is the amount of energy from any type of ionizing radiation (e.g., alpha, beta, gamma, neutrons, etc.) deposited in any medium (e.g., water, tissue, air). A dose of one rad is equivalent to the absorption of 100 ergs (a small but measurable amount of energy) per gram of absorbing tissue. The rad has been replaced by the gray in the SI system of units (1 gray = 100 rad).
Any area with radiation levels greater than 5 millirems (0.05 millisievert) in one hour at 30 centimeters from the source or from any surface through which the radiation penetrates.
Radiation detection instrument
A device that detects and displays the characteristics of ionizing radiation.
Radiation sickness (syndrome)
The complex of symptoms characterizing the disease known as radiation injury, resulting from excessive exposure (greater than 200 rads or 2 gray) of the whole body (or large part) to ionizing radiation. The earliest of these symptoms are nausea, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea, which may be followed by loss of hair (epilation), hemorrhage, inflammation of the mouth and throat, and general loss of energy. In severe cases, where the radiation exposure has been approximately 1,000 rad (10 gray) or more, death may occur within two to four weeks.
Usually a sealed source of radiation used in teletherapy and industrial radiography, as a power source for batteries (as in use in space craft), or in various types of industrial gauges. Machines, such as accelerators and radioisotope generators, and natural radionuclides may be considered sources.
Dose and dose rate limits, permissible concentrations, rules for handling, regulations for transportation, regulations for industrial control of radiation, and control of radioactive material established by legislative or regulatory means for the safe use and application of ionizing radiation.
Radiation warning symbol
An officially prescribed symbol (a magenta or black trefoil) on a yellow background that must be displayed where certain quantities of radioactive materials are present or where certain doses of radiation could be received.
Radiation weighting factor
The factor by which the absorbed dose (rad or gray) must be multiplied to obtain a quantity that expresses, on a common scale for all ionizing radiation, the biological damage (rem or sievert) to the exposed tissue. It is used because some types of radiation, such as alpha particles, are more biologically damaging to live tissue than other types of radiation when the absorbed dose from both is equal. This replaces the term quality factor in the latest system of recommendations for radiation protection.
Deposition of radioactive material in any place where it is not wanted.
A succession of nuclides, each of which transforms by radioactive disintegration into another nuclide until a stable nuclide results. The first member is called the parent, the intermediate members are called decay (or daughter) products, and the final stable member is called the end product.
The process of undergoing the transformation of an unstable nucleus by the spontaneous emission of radiation, generally alpha or beta particles, often accompanied by gamma rays, from the nucleus of an unstable radionuclide. Often used also to express the rate at which radioactive material emits radiation. Measured in units of becquerels in the SI system of units or curies in the traditional system of units.
The making of a shadow image on photographic film by the action of ionizing radiation.
An unstable isotope of an element that decays or disintegrates spontaneously, emitting radiation. Approximately 5,000 natural and artificial radioisotopes have been identified.
The evaluation of the radiation hazards accompanying the production, use, or existence of radioactive materials under a specific set of conditions. Such evaluation customarily includes a physical survey of the disposition of materials and equipment, measurements or estimates of the levels of radiation that may be involved, and a sufficient knowledge of processes affecting these materials to predict hazards resulting from expected or possible changes in materials or equipment.
The branch of medicine dealing with the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of radiant energy, including x rays and radioisotopes.
The relative susceptibility of cells, tissues, organs, organisms, or other substances to the injurious action of radiation.
A radioactive metallic element with atomic number 88. As found in nature, the most common isotope has a mass number of 226. It occurs in minute quantities associated with uranium in pitchblende, carnotite, and other minerals.
A radioactive element that is one of the heaviest gases known. Its atomic number is 86. It is a daughter of radium and thorium.
A person assumed to have the anatomical and physiological characteristics of an average individual. These assumed characteristics are used in calculations assessing internal dose (also may be called "Standard Man")
rem (Roentgen Equivalent Man)
A unit in the traditional system of units that measures the effects of ionizing radiation on humans.
In many health fields, risk means the probability of incurring injury, disease, or death. Risk can be expressed as a value that ranges from zero (no injury or harm will occur) to one (harm or injury will definitely occur).Tungsten alloy radiation shielding can protect us from the risk.
A term that applies to the extent of radiation reflected from room surfaces that reaches the point of interest in the room containing the radiation source; it most often applies to neutron radiation.Tungsten alloy radiation shielding is widely used in medical areas.
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